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tv   Beyond 100 Days  BBC News  April 16, 2019 7:00pm-8:01pm BST

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you're watching beyond one hundred days. france's wealthiest companies and citizens step up — pledging millions to restore notre dame. that will be a way off — today police and fire services are busy trying to determine if the building is safe and secure. we got more images from the cathedral today — inside and out, the damage is less terrible than originally feared. the damage is devastating but the main building has been saved. the damage is devastating but the main building has been savedm the damage is devastating but the main building has been saved. it is not just a main building has been saved. it is notjust a building but our common legacy and strengthen history and it belongs to everyone. the president was quick to the scene to assess damage — tonight emmanuel macron will address the nation. we will bring you what he says.
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hello and welcome — i'm katty kay in washington and matthew price is in london. president emmanuel macron those in paris addressing the country and we will take you straight to his remarks. translation: what we saw last night in paris was the ability to mobilise everyone, to unite us. throughout our history, we have built towns, ports, churches, many have burned down, many destroyed by wars, revolutions, and each time, each time we have rebuilt them. the fire in notre dame reminds us that out fire in notre dame reminds us that our history never stops, never. and that we will always have trials to
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overcome. and what we think is in some sense indestructible can in fa ct some sense indestructible can in fact be destroyed. all the material and spiritual assets of france are fragile and we should never forget that, and it is up to us, the men and women of france today, to ensure throughout history this great continuity which is at the centre of french identity. it is for this reason that this evening i wanted to address you directly, because it is oui’ address you directly, because it is our duty today and this is what we must always be mindful of. i will come back to you in the upcoming days to urge you to act collectively
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after a great debate, but that is not the business of today. we know we have to offer that but it is not time for that yet. letters remember the last couple of hours of last night and the early morning today. each and every person sacrificed, gave what they had. the firefighters have fought with heroism, the police and security forces were there as always. the parisian and the international community and the photographers have shown the photos of this devastation and each and everybody has given what they could.
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each according to his role. and what i want to see this evening is that we are people of builders, we have so we are people of builders, we have so much to rebuild. we will rebuild the cathedral of notre dame and make it even better than before and we can do this and we will mobilise around it. after the times of trial, reflection and action. but we should not mix these up. we should not be trapped in the haste. i know like all of you, the impatience which says that we have to act at every moment in order to respond to every
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call. and that would lead only to managing things and not being mindful of our history. i believe very profoundly that we must change this catastrophe into unity, having reflected very carefully, very profoundly about what we are, and to become better than we are at the moment. it is up to us to find again what is in our history, that has made us and united is in one great project. one that is passionately french. men and women of france and all of you, foreigners who love france and paris, i want to say to you this evening that i share your pain buti you this evening that i share your pain but i also share hope. what we
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have to do now is a great deal and we will act and we will succeed. long live the republic and long love france. president emmanuel macron addressing his country but also addressing his country but also addressing the world to the people he said all love france and he talked about rebuilding and he said we will rebuild notre dame even better than before, and he talked about a spirit of unity that had come out of this. i know the impatience that you all have but we must be mindful of our history and we must turn this catastrophe into unity. we are, he said, a nation of builders. and remember this is a president who roughly the time the fire started was due to address the nation on the subject of five months of anti—government protest. a president under a lot of political
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pressure on france to try to find an a nswer to pressure on france to try to find an answer to those protesters who come from across the country, who complain about high taxes, high fuel taxes in particular, but also the general economic climate in the country. and so for him, this is a moment he would hope to post to talk about his sadness and what has happened at notre dame cathedral, but here he is mentioning those words about unity. he also talks about the material and spiritual aspects of france are fragile. this wasn't just a speech aspects of france are fragile. this wasn'tjust a speech at aspects of france are fragile. this wasn't just a speech at an aspects of france are fragile. this wasn'tjust a speech at an address to the nation about a cathedral, it was also about his political vision for france. and that appeal to unity, i suspect you will hear more about that. lyse doucet is in paris for us. what is the latest you hearing? let me comment how striking
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it is that as you mentioned, yesterday was to be the day that emmanuel macron addressed the nation to talk about unifying the nation after le grand debacle, the great debate about the oppressed in france. he said we will have that debate but now was not the time. you could have made the same speech about le grand debacle that he just made about the cathedral, talking about how everybody played their role, everybody did the best they could. everyone came together to turn a catastrophe into unity. france is a nation of builders. he could use exactly those same words that he used to talk about rebuilding this cathedral as rebuilding this cathedral as rebuilding the fabric of france. after it has been torn by so many of these fault lines. but yesterday he was addressing the cathedral and we
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have been hearing reports of a huge ball of fire that engulfed the cathedral they say was an accident connected to the renovation work that we understand cost about 150 million euros and which they had difficulty raising. now the pledges are coming in, 700 million and counting, raised so far. the money will not be a problem and judging by president macron, and everyone we have heard today and around the world, it is not going to be a problem. many of the concerns last night as we all sat around the world and watched, that terrible blaze on the cathedral behind you. many of the cathedral behind you. many of the concerns what about the architectural integrity of the building, those colossal medieval rose windows and stained glass, the a rtefa cts rose windows and stained glass, the artefacts inside the cathedral, but we heard today that quite a lot of
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thatis we heard today that quite a lot of that is safe? indeed. once they were able to go inside the structure, you had the junior interior able to go inside the structure, you had thejunior interior minister, the culture minister and experts, they came out saying the stone structure is still relatively solid. points of vulnerability but the structure as there and most of the great artworks and relics and we heard today about the crown of thorns that christians believejesus w0 re thorns that christians believejesus wore before the crucifixion, the tunic worn by louis ix, all of that has been saved. there was damage around the altar but by and large a lot of the interior is still there which is why it has given rise to this hope that notre dame can rise again. thank you, and we will bring you all those pictures we have, amazing pictures of the inside and outside. so how did the fire spread through the cathedral? we still don't know
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the cause but smoke emerged from the building just before seven o'clock local time. the fire appears to have started beneath the 315 foot spire — quickly spreading north and south along the timber roof. the blaze then travelled along the eastern section — and the other way too, towards the towers. during last night's programme we were broadcasting while the notre dame fire was at its worst — and among the people we spoke to on air was the journalist agnes poirier — whose paris flat overlooks the catherdral. overlooks the cathedral. at one point she spoke about being on the verge of tears — well — this morning she tweeted with more optimism. dawn in paris. #notredame is still standing. hurt yet magnificent. and we've been speaking with agnes again — to hear how paris is responding. so this morning i couldn't sleep. i we nt so this morning i couldn't sleep. i went around 5am and it felt like being at the bedside of a beloved
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pa re nt being at the bedside of a beloved parent who is injured, and there we re parent who is injured, and there were quite a lot of us and we waited for don to break and she was still there. it was an amazing site and a nyway there. it was an amazing site and anyway yesterday we went to bed in utter despair and this morning we we re utter despair and this morning we were slightly reassured, especially after president macron spoke yesterday saying we are going to rebuild notre dame and it feels today that it is something that is possible. yesterday you talked about how you were almost in tears about this. i wonder if you can go into that in a bit more depth about the emotional connection between you and other people in france and this building. i don't think there is a difference between parisians, french and anyone who has approached or visited notre dame in their lives, because she has, and i am saying
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she, because she is part of the family, a living being. she has this very imposing presence but very benevolent presence. she is utterly beautiful. it is not something to which you can be indifferent, and also she is historic. history personified. 850 years. and also, she is a marker for civilisation and she is a marker for civilisation and she is a marker for civilisation and she is completely unique and probably mankind's greatest achievement, or at least one of the greatest. and of course you expect that she is immortal, that she is not vulnerable, but yesterday we saw how vulnerable she could be. and she will now be rebuilt hundreds of millions of euros being pledged, and iimagine the millions of euros being pledged, and i imagine the french are relieved to see this outpouring of donations.
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will she be the same, how will she change? the timber roof has been completely destroyed but there are forests in versailles and a lot of oak trees and that is what wood is for, and very old but not as old as the ones in notre dame that dated back to the middle ages. that can be done exactly as it used to be. it looks as if probably one of the most beloved treasures of notre dame is intact, i beloved treasures of notre dame is intact, lam beloved treasures of notre dame is intact, i am talking about the stained glass dating back to 1260 and it looks as if a lot of statues had been put to safety because of the restoration work that is probably the origin of the fire. we don't know yet but it looks as if this is probably not a criminal act
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but somehow linked with the restoration work. thank you for joining us. and you know, if you think back it is only 24—hour since this fire was raging in some of the despair we heard on the programme last night, still, it is something you would rather not have happened, the spire has gone on the roof has gone, yet inside the cathedral, they say, the heritage director of the cathedral says, only one piece of architecture has been damaged. he says the high altar which was installed just a few years back was hit as that spire fell down into the area the pictures are showing you, but remarkably so many of the frescoes and the chapels and the organ himself with slight damage but it is all fine.
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and i imagine there are a lot of christians around the world and the holy week looking at some of these photographs and seeing the cross almost miraculously still there lit bya almost miraculously still there lit by a shaft of sunlight and thinking, somebody gave us something and gave us somebody gave us something and gave usa somebody gave us something and gave us a gift in keeping that cross safe. it does seem there was one critical half—hour when we had been told that the building was not going told that the building was not going to stand than the french government we re to stand than the french government were saying we think we have lost everything because they thought it was going into the bell tower, and it now seems it was a critical 15—30 minutes when they managed to stop the tower being set on fire and it saved the structure itself. more later in the programme. american politics now. the long wait for the mueller report is almost over. on thursday it will be released to congress and the public — with some redactions for security reasons. president trump today took to twitter to pre—empt the findings. no collusion — no obstruction!
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pretty simply put. this is not strictly true. an early summary of the report from the attorney general did say mueller found no collusion but the question of whether the president obstructed justice is unresolved. and it's that issue that democrats on the hill are particularly focusing on as they wait for thursday. cassie smedile is the national press secretary at the republican national committee. shejoins us now in the she joins us now in the studio. watching those photographs from notre dame and glad to see it is still standing. a moment of unity and on thursday there will not be a moment of unity in this country. are you glad the miller report is being released? and you say there is not a moment of unity but perhaps there should be. on both sides we have been saying let's see the mueller report, yet the democrats are pre—empting the releases if it were not to be enough. we already know based on the attorney general‘s summary, no collusion, and not
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enough evidence to deem obstruction. also not enough evidence to clear the president of obstruction. are you concerned could details which come out but because the president problems on this question. come out but because the president problems on this questionm come out but because the president problems on this question. it is important that we see the full report as the attorney general has made clear and he is going to shows this to the greatest extent of the law as he is able, but i trust the attorney general and mueller that they have done a complete analysis according to the law. the attorney general was completely clear that he proceeds to the letter of the law and the democrats seem to be ok with us and the democrats seem to be ok with us and now they are trying to call into question and doubtjust because it seems the findings aren't going to follow with their political line of the last two years. matthew here in london. i wonder whether you and other republicans feel uneasy about the way the president is trying to shift attention away from mueller.
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he says it is done and dusted, nothing to see here, and yet in order to shift attention he is talking up immigration problems and problems on the border and making some pretty strong suggestions about what might have to happen in order to stop illegal immigration to the united states. i think there is no shifting attention. the president has been clear on no collusion but to the point of talking about emigration, he continues to talk about the issues that the american people care about. a recent cnn poll found that zero respondents said the mueller investigation was a reason they are voting but emigration is a big issue and that is because we have a crisis on the border and regardless of the political rhetoric, i would say on both sides, there should be broad agreement that we need to do something and that is what the president has been singularly focused on for some time. you are saying we need to see the
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mueller report and find out the details, the president has called it a witchhunt. do you agree it is a witchhunt? i think it is hard to believe otherwise. it is a perfectly legal special counsel investigation. and he has also been clear that he has not stood on the way of this investigation in any way, shape or form. i'm not only does it seem from the summary that this is true but the summary that this is true but the former fbi directorjames cormier has said this is true so it is frustrating to the president that we have spent how many millions of taxpayer dollars on something which seems should be based on a political motivated and debunked dossier. he is right to be frustrated with this process. thank you for coming in. as you say, we will all wait and see what happens on thursday because thatis what happens on thursday because that is when we will get the details of what exactly is in the report. people here are very impatient. in the meantime, president trump now has a challenger in his election bid on the republican side. governor
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weld, the former governor of massachusetts, is saying he wants to step in to challenge donald trump. his chances very sublime and it is very rare that this kind of challenge has been in history. i interviewed him this morning and he told me he thought he had a moral duty to point out that the president's weaknesses, in terms of character and fitness for office but also the policies. this leaves me wondering, what is he trying to do? is he trying to dislodge the president to retract democrats? what is he trying to do? in the past when you have had a member of the own party challenging an incumbent republican that has actually made the opposition‘s chances stronger of
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winning the presidency, so there is a possibility he could damage the president in some way and that then turns the white house over to the democrats. that is an issue that he must be aware of and he says he is running because he feels he has a moral duty to run and then a way, the language he used when speaking to this morning sounded more like he was trying protect the republican party almost from itself and donald trump, that he felt somebody has to speak up and say that donald trump does not embody republican conservative principles, that his presidency is too far outside of republican norms and that is why he is running, he feels as much so the party doesn't split as to have a chance of winning the white house. sweden's teenage activist greta thunberg has urged europeans to vote in next month's elections on behalf of young people — to demand decisive action against climate change. she was speaking at the european parliament in strasbourg where she attended a meeting of the environment committee.
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the 16—year—old met with the european parliament president antonio tajani — and had this message of solidarity for young people calling for action on climate change. to all the young europeans fighting for their future, to all the young europeans fighting for theirfuture, i would to all the young europeans fighting for their future, i would say that you should continue because you're doing a good job. there has been hundreds of thousands of students in europe who have been striking for the climate. and they have made history, i think, the climate. and they have made history, ithink, so the climate. and they have made history, i think, so they should be very proud of themselves. meanwhile in london — police are dealing with a second day of climate protests led by british group extinction rebellion. more than 122 people have been arrested and protesters remain at a number of locations, including parliament square and oxford circus. police said around half a million people had been affected by the diversion of 55 bus routes across london. there have been other protests
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in edinburgh and nottingham. sleep — we all have opinions on it, but a new report in the sleep health journal, says there are a lot of theories about sleep which are wrong. so, matthew, you're going to be the guinea pig here for us to see if you've fallen for any of these myths. first question — how many hours can you get by on each night? i need eight hours. i will tell you that. me too. five hours is not enough. despite the fact that president trump boasts he only sleeps four hours. margaret thatcher also said she only had four hours.
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studies show that consistently sleeping five hours or less increases your risk of heart attacks, strokes, and shorter life expectancy. next question, does a night cap help you sleep? sometimes, yes. never, never. alcohol doesn't help. a glass of wine or a whiskey before bed may help you fall asleep, but it dramatically reduces the quality of your sleep. in particular the rem stage, which is important for memory and learning. what about tv? never watch it in bed. never watch tv in bed. researchers say watching programmes or news isn't relaxing and can cause insomnia or stress before bed. the blue light can also delay the body's production of the sleep hormone melatonin. this is beyond 100 days from the bbc. coming up for viewers on the bbc news channel and bbc world news — we'll be speaking to anne lester — a professor of medieval history atjohn hopkins university in baltimore — about the significance of the devastation caused by the fire at notre—dame cathedral.
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and, would you be able to spot a fake product online? amazon's website has been reported to be full of fake five—star reviews. the weather is set to turn much sunnier over the next few days and much warmer. we started off the week like this with the temperature really struggling, aberdeen, belfast and newcastle, 14 in london close to normalfor and newcastle, 14 in london close to normal for the and newcastle, 14 in london close to normalfor the time of and newcastle, 14 in london close to normal for the time of year, but if we fast forward to the weekend we can see how much warmer it is expected to be, the temperature into the high teens, warmer spots getting up the high teens, warmer spots getting up to 21125. saturday has been disappointingly cloudy but as the weather front with the way we saw late sunshine, here is the weather front and you can still see some rain across england and wales turning light and patchy, damp
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weather still affecting western scotland, but even here, the rain petering out. left was a lot of cloud around than some mist and fog patches forming over the tops of the hills, but not a cold night with the temperature for seven. into wednesday, high pressure still in scandinavia feeding cold winds towards shetland, but otherwise the wind coming in from western europe and that is what will help boost the temperature. wednesday starts off with a lot of cloud around, so a great start to the day with mist and fog patches. the fog and low cloud will melt away and left with some sunshine, the best in the afternoon, and feeling warmer with highs of 19, 30 not bad in belfast and 15 in edinburgh, feeling warmer than the last couple of days. more of the same on thursday with high pressure still influencing the weather. wind coming in from the north sea, kept a little cooler and fresher but the
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temperature continues to rise and we are looking at highs of up to 20 celsius, 17 in edinburgh, 15 for belfast. good friday ends like this with plenty of sunshine to come, the temperature widely into the high teens and low 20s or feeling pleasa ntly warm teens and low 20s or feeling pleasantly warm for many of us on friday. but again some on the eastern coast cooler and fresher, 14 in aberdeen but away from the winds 21 the top temperature in edinburgh. warmer on saturday, 2a and 25, but the trend for the weather to turn cooler and cloudier with the threat of rain across the north west on monday.
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this is beyond 100 days. i'm katty kay, matthew price is in london. our top stories: a sombre day in france as parisians assess the fire damage at notre dame cathedral. we are people of builders and we have so much to rebuild. yes, we will rebuild the cathedral of notre dame and make it even better than before. minds turn to rebuilding notre dame, as offers of help, both financial and practical, have been flooding in from around the world. also on the programme: a look at the earliest evidence of
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mastic in the ocean, apparently it is nothing new. —— plastic. and fake five star reviews are skewing searches on amazon, as many little known tech brands have been getting false support. two years ago, the friends of notre dame set themselves a fundraising target. they wanted to raise 100 million euros within five to ten years to rennovate the crumbling gothic cathedral. today, in the 2a hours since the fire, six times that amount has alredy been pledged. notre dame was in disrepair before yesterday's fire, damaged by previous attempts at restoration. 200 years ago, work which prompted by the victor hugo novel the hunchback of notre dame was badly done, using quality materials to fix the building. it made the situation worse. in the two centuries since then, stonework has fallen off, gargoyles have corroded because of pollution, the wood timbered roof, built by medieval craftsmen using 5,000 oak trees, became threatened by water damage to the spire. fergal keane reports now on the importance of notre dame to the people of paris.
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"to everything there is a season, a time to break down, a time to build up." the biblical text so resonant when that that has stood for centuries is broken by fire. in the lives of paris, this has been a day of solemn reflection. father philippe filmed the flames as the fire took hold. he was ordained in the cathedral and has worked there for decades. "notre dame is my mother, he told me. "i came into the spiritual life because of her. 31 years ago, i was ordained here. today, my mother has been burned. she cries, but she still stands." yet to see what's happened as only a french loss is to misunderstand the meaning of this city, the universality of its treasures. francesca is a german who lives in paris because as a teenager, she visited notre dame and was enchanted. today, she could feel hope and renewal.
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it reminds me, somehow, that the church is not stones, it's not only culture. for me, it's a living community, actually. it's the people who go to the church who are at the very core of our faith. so we are believing in hope being stronger than destruction and in life being stronger than death, and life that will, eventually, win. for generations, artists have sketched and painted on the banks of the seine. lauren was here this morning to sketch the old spire from memory. he's not a religious man but he is a proud parisien and through his art wants to give shape to what might rise once more. "i am sad, but we are going to fight back", he says. "we will find wood in the french forests and we will build again. i can see the stained glass is still there, it is magnificent. it will be all right." there is no doubting the loss, but neither of the determination to raise again the glory of notre dame. fergal keane, bbc news, paris.
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we'rejoined now by anne lester, a professor of medieval history atjohns hopkins university in baltimore. there is a vigil in paris and we will bring those pictures to un we get them. i am interested will bring those pictures to un we get them. iam interested in will bring those pictures to un we get them. i am interested in how the fire spread through the building so fast. we got news at one point they thought the whole structure might go and then we will go up this morning and then we will go up this morning and then we will go up this morning and the towers were still standing. there seems to be this crucial moment where they managed to prevent the firefighters getting into the towers, how does it go through a building like this and get stopped? it was a tremendous relief this morning and i think over the course of the day, as we realised that so much of the building has in fact
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remained integral, from the vaulting below. i think one of the reasons it spread so very quickly is that what we all don't see from the outside or the inside is that spectacular timber roof, built of all those french oak trees, some of them dating from the 13th century. it is just absolutely staggering but that also means you have an incredible amount of very old timber that had not been maintained. as we have heard, there has been a struggle now for decades to work to repair notre dame to repairthe for decades to work to repair notre dame to repair the roof and the top of the church, the gargoyles things that have paul —— fallen into neglect and disrepair and once the fire started i suspect it was that combination of the lead roof, the timbers underneath, beneath the roof, and then the vaulting which created this sort of enclosed space
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thatjust said that created this sort of enclosed space that just said that space ablaze. and then we saw of course the billowing smoke that travelled so quickly, i conically come into the sky, the colour aided and abetted by the fact that it is a lead roof and as the lead oxidises, as it burns, it colours the smoke a kind of distinctive yellow colour. that i think is what really aided the roof itself, the timbers, just a lighting up itself, the timbers, just a lighting up like kindling. it did what it was meant to do. and it protected some of the artworks inside. looking at this, it is remarkable how much of the artwork was saved. precisely. as the artwork was saved. precisely. as the images became more detailed and we could see inside the church, we could see the pilot timber and the stonework, from the crossing of the church, where the spire was and where it collapsed inwards, we could
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also see the fact that there was much that was left integral. there is going to be a great need for specialists to check the vaulting to make sure that it really is in place. these buildings were held at bikey stones. it is the tension of the brilliance of gothic building and to compromise part of it, one worries about the whole. —— by key stones. medieval people new that many, many churches were burned to the ground during the middle ages. and they learned from what they had witnessed, how to minimise the destruction. the pictures we are looking out at the moment are just some of the many artefacts that were rescued from the cathedral, some i think have gone to the paris town hall, others have been taken to the louvre in paris. there is talk,
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president macron has said this evening, in the last half—hour, we are going to rebuild the cathedral, make it even better than before. i wonder if you have a thought on how rebuilding should be carried out, should it be rebuilt to mimic exactly what it was 36 hours ago, or should there perhaps be some sort of different style that they embrace? this is a massive question and when he said that, it did give me pause and sort of made me smile, especially as a medieval historian, how could it be better than what we have seen?! i am so devoted to the past and understanding that. and really honouring the labour of generations of people that went into building and creating this edifice, we know it. that said, notre dame again, those of us who study it, know that it has almost all cathedrals a history of being built and rebuilt, modified for stylistic reasons, modified to make room as you accommodate for growing numbers
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of pilgrims who would visit the building, so these buildings were consta ntly building, so these buildings were constantly a kind of work in progress anyway. we sometimes kind of you know think that they have always already been the way that they look to us today as monuments but that is not so much the case. in a sense, we have an opportunity now to really leave our mark as a community of people in the 21st—century, french people in particular, to think about how they are going to rebuild notre dame in a particular image and style. i certainly hope that they will not do anything radical to the building, to honour the vision as it was intended, i will be very fascinated reading the reports of people talking about donating and working collectively to gather from the oak trees of france. i hope fragile as building and timber is, compared to
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reinforced steel, it is counter —— kind of counterpart monument, the paris skyline, but i do think adhering to the origins of the structure and to what it was intended, at least for me as a historian, is important. thank you very much forjoining us, the idea ofa very much forjoining us, the idea of a new life, it is amazing that just 24—hour is after that fire, a day after our programme yesterday, people are already looking to the future. it is a sign of resilience, i guess. you can hear the releasing so many voices that we have been talking to. this time last night, we we re talking to. this time last night, we were looking at pictures and it was about now that you yourself said, this just looks awful and we all agreed that this could be terrible. i think we had a guest on around this time 24—hour is ago, speculating it might be possible that just everything
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speculating it might be possible thatjust everything would collapse and they would be nothing left. and tha nkfully and they would be nothing left. and thankfully that did not happen. tonight parisians are holding a vigil at the church of st sulpice to remember events of the past 2a hours. this is happening now and 24—hour is ago these people were fearing the worst. as we heard earlier in the programme, it almost felt that there was some sense of relief for people that the structure at least is still standing. and the news we understand from the french government, some three years before the public will be allowed back in again, but president macron tonight speaking confidently about the fact that this building will be rebuilt and also saying out of this catastrophe, we can have a spirit of unity and i think what we are watching on our
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screens right now is that spirit of unity, that the french president spoke about just a unity, that the french president spoke aboutjust a few moments ago. so when you are buying a product online, do you read the reviews and would you be able to spot if any were fake? well, a report from british consumer group which? is warning that amazon's website is full of fake five—star reviews. the group says glowing reviews on items like headphones, smart watches and fitness trackers are dominated by unknown brands. amazon has responded, saying it is using automated technology to weed out the fakes. earlier, we spoke to jen copestake from the bbc‘s technology programme click. which? looked at 14 different popular products, everything from cameras popular products, everything from cameras to fitness trackers, and they found that these products are being flooded, the amazon being
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flooded by fake reviews, so there are many thousands of 5—star reviews for products and brands that people not have heard of and these are being displayed prominently, they are ones being displayed prominently, they are ones that people would be very keen perhaps to buy. and this is a real problem they found for the store. do we know who is writing these fake reviews? a lot of them could be written by bots, they could be people behind the products, if it isa be people behind the products, if it is a product nobody has heard of, a small chinese company, somebody from these companies are writing these reviews. they did not looking specific detail at that. but it may be people automating and cutting and pasting reviews and it is important for them to push their reviews up to the top of the search less. i look at some of the reviews and i found i think that amazon has seen some of the news that has come out today and i certainly saw that within the top range on headphones there were some very well— known brands that were coming up in the first page. when
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which? did the review, they said 100% of the headphones results were brands that none of their experts had heard of. all of them, that is amazing! does that suggest to you that amazon are already responding? and how much can they protect against fake reviews? some of these reviews will be automated and amazon says they have automated software thatis says they have automated software that is looking at fake reviews and weeding them out of the side. they say even one weeding them out of the side. they say even one fake review is too much. they say they have invested a lot of money into investing —— policing and clearly it is not perfect but we will see what else they can do. what can we as consumers do? there is a lot we can do to educate ourselves. if you see that a brand is unknown to you, do look into it and don'tjust that a brand is unknown to you, do look into it and don't just trust their reviews. you might see that
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there have been hundreds of 5—star reviews placed about this product. within a day perhaps. that should give you a red warning. don't take that as gospel, when you read that. you could also just check the dates, how often these people are placing reviews, has there been a flood of reviews, has there been a flood of reviews, it is important to check if people have been verified sellers or buyers? have they had products verified by amazon that they are who they say they are. that is something that amazon does provide. if they can verify it then you can become a verified reviewer. thank you very much. just wondering how many pairs of headphones i have bought on amazon from unknown companies that have not been very good. this is beyond 100 days. still to come — firefighters risked their lives to keep notre dame catherdral standing. now hundreds of millions of euros have been pledged to rebuild,
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we'll speak with unesco about how that process gets under way. labour party leaderjeremy corbyn has pledged to scrap formal tests in primary schools in england, known as sats. the tests left children in floods of tears or vomiting with worry, he told members of the national education union in liverpool the move means school league tables based on the tests would be ended too. from north west england our education editor bra nwen jeffreys reports. a useful check on your child's progress, or a source of stress and tears? for 20 years, tests have been part of primary school. labour brought them in and now wants to scrap them. sats and the regime of extreme pressure testing are giving young children nightmares and leaving them in floods of tears. so, he said, the current tests would go. the next labour government will scrap primary school sats for seven and 11—year—olds.
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cheering and applause. teachers here are pleased. they've long argued that tests put too much pressure into the school system. but labour says it wouldn't get rid of assessment completely. there still needs to be some way of measuring how children are doing through primary school. so, over the next few months, they're going to be consulting with school governors, teachers and parents. with schools on holiday, more time for play. i asked parents in liverpool about primary tests. but ministers say tests drive up standards. if they abolish sats, parents will have no way of knowing how well their children's school is teaching reading, writing and maths, and these are the building blocks of a successful education for every child. a new test is due to be added in england. called baseline, it would be as children start school. similar tests in scotland have been deeply controversial, and are now under review.
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branwen jeffreys, bbc news, liverpool. it's the earliest evidence of plastic litter in the ocean — a bag which became tangled in a piece of research equipment half a century ago. the finding is part of a study by scientists in plymouth which has tracked the history of plastic in the ocean, revealing the scale of the accumulation in recent decades. victoria gill reports. a mission beneath the waves. for decades, scientists have been measuring the health of the ocean by collecting plankton, the most important link in the marine food chain. along the way almost by accident they have produced a historical record of our impact on the seas using a very old—fashioned device. the design of this plankton recorder hasn't changed for a century. it's been told millions of miles are the ocean but in recent decades with this finding everywhere it looks as plastic. with more than half a century of ships logs, the scientists
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have a record of retirement everywhere on the planet plastic litter became entangled in the device. in 1965, we got a plastic bag and snared. one of the earliest pieces of plastic litter to be found floating in the ocean? yes. the other records from ingestion studies where they look at sea turtles and sea birds the earliest records are again in the 1960s, so it matches up exactly. this project has documented ocean plastic from 1957 to 2016. since 1990 the amount of plastic letter in the c increase significantly. the number of plastic bags found has decreased in recent years although it is not clear that is linked to campaigns to phase them out.
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when one of the recorders in the fleet has finished its mission it is brought back to plymouth and here researchers continue to add to our library of samples they have gathered from all over the world. it is a mission that first loaf beneath the surface around the time plastic was invented. now it will continue to provide vital information to help reduce the impact of our litter on the oceans. it is so good that research is being done. notre dame's landmark main stone structure, including its two towers is still standing. and attention is turning to renovation and reconstruction. joining us from unesco's paris headquaters is assistant director general ernesto ottone ramirez. thank you forjoining us. i wonder if you are in a position to assess
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the damage to the cathedral? i don't think we have any sound. we will carry on with that conversation if we can bring it to you. but we did hear president macron saying this evening that the process will start and he described paris as a nation of builders and we know that the money is there. i think we can return to that interview. sorry, we had a technical issue. do you know how damaged the building is, do you —— can you tell? how damaged the building is, do you -- can you tell? they are doing the assessment, the government of france, as you know, two thirds of the cathedral was on fire. they are doing everything that they can to assess what are the damages but first is most important that the pa rt first is most important that the part that has not collapsed is all right to continue to do these assessments. and tomorrow, they will continue to do this. you will get
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safety assessments carried out and then what sort of work will go on inside the cathedral, in the first few days? the cathedral has all the inventories of all the objects of art, very precise. so now what we are looking and trying to have with specialists of unesco is an assessment of how many of these objects have disappeared and that will be known in five or six days. it takes a lot of time because the damage is very harsh into the cathedral. the conversation is already looking at what type of design could be for the cathedral in the future for the rebuilding process ? the future for the rebuilding process? who generally decides that? it will be the government of france,
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with the institution of the ministry of culture, but what is important for unesco, as it is a site of world heritage, is to ensure that universal value of the site remains. it is not only the cathedral, it is also the island that is recognised by unesco and that should remain as original as possible and that is very difficult because there is a lot of elements, for more than 800 years, it was beginning to be built, we are not sure they exist as materials, so there is a lot of specialists who have to see if it is possible to recover the cathedral as it was before these horrible
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disasters. thank you very much for joining us. we will look forward to that process beginning and they will bea that process beginning and they will be a big discussion i am sure in france about the nature of the rebuilding, how it is done and where the material comes from but clearly, the material comes from but clearly, the whole country is invested in this. it is now 24—hour since we we re this. it is now 24—hour since we were broadcasting while notre dame was burning. the fire ravaged the 850—year—old building's roof and caused its spire to collapse. at this stage, they are still taking stock of the level of damage. hundreds of millions of euros have been pledged to help rebuild the french cathedral. let's look back now at some of the key images from paris. bell sounds.
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it is devastating. it is overwhelming. paris is crying now. asa as a christian, i want to be full of
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hope, because we built this fantastic cathedral, and we will have to rebuild it. hello again. our weather is set to turn much sunnier over the next few days and much warmer. you might remember we started off the week like this with temperatures really struggling. close to normalfor the time of year. but if we fast forward to the weekend, you can see how much warmer we are expecting it to be. the warmest spots getting up to 24 or 25 celsius. today has been a disappointingly cloudy day but as the weather front moved away from south—western link, we saw some late day sunshine. this is the weather front. we have some damp weather
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still affecting western scotland. but the rain will slowly ease as we go through the rest of the night. a lot of cloud around answer may stand fog patches forming over the tops of our hills. but not a cold night. that takes us on into wednesday and you can see high pressure still in scandinavia feeding cold winds towards shetland but otherwise, the wind across the uk are coming in from western europe and that will really help boost the temperatures. wednesday starting off with a lot of cloud around. the fog and low cloud will tend to melt away and we will be left with sunshine. the best of it coming through during the afternoon. it will file good deal warmer. 15 celsius in edinburgh. feeling warmer than it has done over recent days. winds coming in from the north sea muscle around the north sea coast it will be fresher.
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inland, temperatures continuing to rise. up to 20 celsius in cardiff. good friday ends the week like this with plenty more of that sunshine to come. temperatures widely into the high teens. low 20s. it will feel pleasa ntly warm high teens. low 20s. it will feel pleasantly warm for many of us on friday. it will get warmer still as we head into saturday. 24, 20 5 degrees. but it will turn cooler and cloudy with the threat of rain towards monday.
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tonight at eight o clock — i'm lyse doucet live in paris by the notre dame cathedral, which is damaged but still standing after surviving a massive fire. hundreds of millions of euros are pledged to help rebuild the famous gothic cathedral — an investigation is under way to find out what caused the blaze. there's relief that so much of the 850—year—old structure survived — the french president emmanuel macron vows to restore the historic building. translation: we are people of builders. we have so much to
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rebuild. yes,

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